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All pictures are shown on the web in reduced resolution. Most original files range between 4 and 8 megapixels in size and are suitable for magnification up to format A3. Hard copies or a nonexclusive right to use digital versions of a picture may be purchased from:
Gerhard Grans vei 58
N-5081 Bergen, Norway
Phone & fax.: 47 55 27 19 54
Biography of Per R. Flood
Dr. Per R. Flood was born in Bergen, Norway, in 1941 and graduated from the Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, in 1966. He received his doctorate from the same institution in 1968, on a thesis dealing with the ultrastructure of muscle fibre types in the lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and on the peculiar way in which these muscle fibres obtain their innervation by sending cytoplasmic processes to the surface of the spinal cord. Dr. Flood served as Professor at the University of Bergen, Institute of Anatomy from 1966 to 1992, and as Professor in the Department of Zoology from 1992 to 1997. Currently, he is principal research scientist for Bathybiologica A/S.
As professor, Dr. Flood for many years studied distinct skeletal muscle fibre types and their mode of innervation in swimming chordates and vertebrates. In this process he also discovered the paramyosin-muscle nature of the notochord of the lancelet. During his academic career Dr. Flood also contributed to the first description of inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system of mammals, to an improved understanding of some human diseases (a. o. pseudoexfoliation and myasthenia gravis), and to the refinement of several ultrastructural research techniques.
Later Dr. Flood studied the ultrastructural basis for filter feeding in sessile and pelagic tunicates (ascidians and appendicularians) and the system of bioluminescence in some jellyfishes and appendicularians. As part of this work he and colleagues, in an article in Nature in 1992, documented the ability of appendicularians to filter colloid-sized dissolved matter from seawater, strongly suggesting that these animals may be able to use dissolved organic compounds as a food resource. Later Dr. Flood took the initiative for a first international research devoted to Appendicularia (the EC-MAS-3-project EURAPP, 1997-2000) and for the establishment of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica as a model organism in marine molecular biology at the SARS Centre in Bergen. He co-authored a chapter on the structure and function of appendicularian houses, and a second chapter on appendicularian bioluminescence in a 1998 volume entitled The Biology of Pelagic Tunicates (Q. Bone, ed.).
At present, Dr. Flood is gathering material for a photographic presentation of ?the invisible life in the sea? and the photographs of the present gallery represent a small selection of the plankton organisms he may include in this survey. For the past 10 to 15 years he has shot >10 000 high resolution frames of live plankton organisms on his numerous research cruises. Most of them are now digitized and computer edited at a pixel density up to 3000x2000pxl, but shown here at a much reduced resolution.
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